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Metaphone encodes names into a phonetic form such that similar-sounding names have the same or similar Metaphone encodings.

As there are multiple implementations of Metaphone, each with their own bugs, I have based this on my reading of the specification. This implementation has been only lightly tested so far; please report any bugs found.

I have also compared this implementation with that found in PHP’s standard library. The present implementation follows the algorithm description, whilst PHP’s implementation mimics the behaviour of LP’s original BASIC implementation, which appears to contain bugs (specifically with the handling of CC and MB). The changes required for 100% compatibility are noted in the code, marked with [PHP]. It would be useful to compare the behaviour of other implementations as well.

The original system described by Lawrence Philips in Computer Language Vol. 7 No. 12, December 1990, pp 39-43:

The 16 consonant sounds:

B X S K J T F H L M N P R 0 W Y

0 represents the "th" sound.


Initial  kn-, gn-, pn, ac- or wr-     -> drop first letter
Initial  x-                           -> change to "s"
Initial  wh-                          -> change to "w"


Vowels are kept only when they are the first letter.

B -> B   unless at the end of a word after "m" as in "dumb"
C -> X    (sh) if -cia- or -ch-
     S   if -ci-, -ce- or -cy-
     K   otherwise, including -sch-
D -> J   if in -dge-, -dgy- or -dgi-
     T   otherwise
F -> F
G ->     silent if in -gh- and not at end or before a vowel
         in -gn- or -gned- (also see dge etc. above)
     J   if before i or e or y if not double gg
     K   otherwise
H ->     silent if after vowel and no vowel follows
     H   otherwise
J -> J
K ->     silent if after "c"
     K   otherwise
L -> L
M -> M
N -> N
P -> F   if before "h"
     P   otherwise
Q -> K
R -> R
S -> X   (sh) if before "h" or in -sio- or -sia-
     S   otherwise
T -> X   (sh) if -tia- or -tio-
     0   (th) if before "h"
         silent if in -tch-
     T   otherwise
V -> F
W ->     silent if not followed by a vowel
     W   if followed by a vowel
X -> KS
Y ->     silent if not followed by a vowel
     Y   if followed by a vowel
Z -> S


require 'metaphone'
Metaphone.metaphone('foo bar') # => "F BR"

Revision history


Copyright © 2005 Paul Battley

Usage of the works is permitted provided that this instrument is retained with the works, so that any entity that uses the works is notified of this instrument.




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  1. Per Olofsson

    Wrote at 2006-08-23 12:24 UTC using Firefox on Linux:

    Just what I needed for searching names in my website project! Thanks!
  2. Flim Flam

    Wrote at 2009-11-08 09:54 UTC using Opera 10.00 on Windows XP:

    Hey call me a Luddite, but I never heard of “RubyForge” before you mentioned it on this page. Great place to browse through and have a look at all the other projects.

    Thanks for that.

  3. Flim Flam

    Wrote at 2009-11-08 10:06 UTC using Opera 10.00 on Windows XP:

    Those Ruby Projects …. what a lot of stuff … must bookmark and go back there for a rake through the “Trove”.... thanks again for that pointer, Paul.

    Ruby Treasure Trove

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